Is There a Hell, and if So, Why?

Hell is a Real Place, and Some Will Choose To Go There

Even Though God is Not Willing that ANY Perish (John 3:16) 

First, Realize that You are Not Your Brain.  You Have a Brain. You are an Eternal Soul, and This Life Has Consequences.

In another article entitled “You are Not Your Brain” we explained the evidence for you as an eternal soul. Your existence continues beyond this mortal body. What you do in this life has eternal consequences. You will be held accountable.

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  • This means that you are an immortal soul. And everything you say and do has eternal consequences.
  • You are either growing nearer to God each day, or further apart from Him. Ultimately your destination is one of two places: to be with your Creator forever (Heaven), or to be separated from Him forever (that would be Hell). 
  • God is not interested in how much you have invested in your career, your home, car, or possessions.  He is interested in your character – your soul, the core of your being.  What makes you “you”. He loves you so much that He came in the form of a man, died on a cross, so that if you believe in Him, you have a way to Heaven and eternal life. 

Jesus spoke about the immense value of our eternal soul. “What does it profit a man to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul? Or what can a man give in exchange for his soul? 

  • What you DO in this life will have eternal rewards, or eternal punishment
  • For those saved by grace through faith, what is done in this life will be rewarded
  • What is done in this body in terms of evil will also have consequences. Gods justice demands it. Yes, God is Love, but He is all about Justice, and Mercy
  • “Vengeance is Mine”, says the Lord. I will repay. To every killer, murderer, and wicked evil person that does wicked evil things in their life. God will repay – you can be sure of it.

We are Eternal Beings, Destined for Eternal Life, or Eternal Death

One or the other.

Those that love God and are called according to Hs purposes are destined to go to Heaven to be with Him and other believers forever. Those that reject God, and refuse His offer of eternal life during their earthly existence, are drifting day by day away from His love. While others who have believed and received Him into their hearts grow daily to be more like Him.

When we die, this process continues. Those that choose God go to be with Him in His Kingdom, while that those have rejected Him will continue to reject Him – even after this earthy existence ceases.

To quote C.S. Lewis, those that seek God cannot fail to find Him. And in the end, there are only two kinds of people: those that say to God “thy will be done”, and those to who God says “thy will be done”. God does not send anyone to “hell”. Hell was never meant for humankind – it was make for the evil one and his fallen angels. But those that choose to side with evil will wind up there is they choose to do so.

What is the Origin of the Word “Hell”?

The word ‘Hell’ is derived from an Anglo-Saxon word hellia (derived from the Old English, Old Norse, Old High German, hel, helle, circa. 725 AD) that is used in the King James version of the Bible to capture the Jewish concept of ‘Gehanna’ as the final destination of the wicked. (Taylor Francis Online)

Words in the Bible Translated as “Hell”


In the Old Testament, the King James Version translates שְׁאוֹל as hell, but this is more appropriately translated by most other versions as Sheol, meaning underworld or “place to which people descend at death” (Strong’s 7585). In the New Testament, this word is translated as hades in Greek, which also refers to the place of the dead.

The Days of NoahAccording to Ben Witherington,The Old Testament says little or nothing about Hell  What it does talk about is Sheol, the land of the dead, which in Greco-Roman thinking has been called Hades.   For example, in 1 Sam 28 we hear about Samuel’s shade or spirit being called up from Sheol to be consulted by the medium of Endor.   Samuel is none too pleased about the summons, but he is not depicted as having been in either heaven or hell.  He is simply in the land of the dead.  This concept of Sheol continued on well into the New Testament era, and may well represent what Paul believes about where people have gone who have died, but who are not in Christ.  For Christians, of course, Paul says “to be absent from the body is to be present with the Lord”  (2 Cor. 5), but what about everyone else?

In 1 Cor. 15,  Paul says quite literally that  Jesus is raised on Easter “from out of the dead ones”, not merely raised from death, though that is true, but raised from out of the realm of dead persons.  This suggests that the dead are still out there, and have not yet been consigned to Hell.

Indeed, traditionally the Christian idea was that no one is consigned to Hell until after the Final Judgment — which, in case you’re wondering, has not yet taken place!  Paul is perfectly clear that the Final Judgment comes after Jesus returns, and there is the bema seat judgment of Christ (again 2 Cor. 5) before which we all must appear to give an account of the deeds we have done in the body.  (Yes, even Christians are accountable for such things). Thereafter, it would appear, we are assigned to our eternal destinations.”


In the New Testament, the word hell is translated from the Greek word, Gehenna, which is Hebrew for the “Valley of Hinnom” (Strong’s 1067). This is a place southwest of Jerusalem where, years before the Jews inhabited Israel, pagans in the land would worship Molek by sacrificing children (Leviticus 18:21Leviticus 20:2-5Deuteronomy 12:31). This was a place outside Jerusalem’s walls desecrated by Molech worship and human sacrifice, thus turned into the dump where rubbish and refuse were burned. The smoldering fires and festering worms made it a graphic and effective image for the fate of those who reject God. 


In the New Testament, Jesus tells a story about a rich man and a poor beggar, and where they end up after their life on earth. According to Jesus, the rich man spent all his time and effort building a splendid life on earth. Here is what he had to say after he passed from this life: “In Hades, where he was in torment…he called, ‘…I am in agony in this flame’” (Luke 16:23-24).

In this passage, we find the term hades, which is the invisible world of the dead (Strong’s 86). “The New Testament use of Hades builds on its Hebrew parallel, Sheol, which was the preferred translation in the Septuagint,” according to Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary.

Why All the Imagery of Flames, Darkness, etc.?

Because God loves you, and since life is a gift and has accountability for actions wrapped up in it, God warns us in His word, the Bible, to avoid this place at all costsStartling imagery is used, especially by Jesus, to convey the horror of eternal separation from our Creator. The word of God warns about hell describing it with images of darkness, gnashing of teeth, fire, and complete separation from God.

A Realm of Darkness

From the oldest book of the Bible (Job) to the last book (Revelation), darkness is consistently associated with hell. Job writes of a “land of deepest night, of utter darkness and disorder,” (Job 10:21-22) a “realm of darkness” (Job 17:13), even a “day of darkness” (Job 15:23). Other references in the Bible include:

A Place of Fire

Imagery of fire is also used to convey the pain and horror of such a place. Isaiah in the Old Testament prophesied about hell as the place where “the fire that burns them will not be quenched” (Isaiah 66:24). This unquenchable fire is also referenced in Mark 9:43 and Mark 9:48. Other fire references throughout the Bible include:

A Place Where there is “Gnashing of Teeth”

Typically people “gnash their teeth” when they are angry, suffering, and frustrated beyond endurance. Jesus, who spoke about hell more than anyone else in the Bible, used this phrase to describe the intense suffering in hell. According to Strong’s 1030, gnashing means binding or grinding. Here is where Jesus warned people about the place “where there will be gnashing of teeth”: Matthew 8:12Matthew 13:41-43Matthew 13:50Matthew 22:13Matthew 24:51Matthew 25:30; and Luke 13:28.

Eternal Separation from God

Often without knowing it, both the redeemed and the unrepentant experience God’s blessings on earth (Matthew 5:45Luke 6:35Romans 2:4). Hell, however, is eternal separation from God’s presence, love, and other blessings. Here are Bible passages describing the reality of hell as separation from God:

  • “Shut out from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might” (2 Thessalonians 1:9)
  • “‘Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels.’” (Matthew 25:41)
  • “Then they will go away to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life.” (Matthew 25:46)

This section was adapted from “What is Hell Like?” on

What Exactly is Meant by Hell Anyway?

According to Bryan Chapell, From Christianity Today: Hell is total, conscious, eternal separation from the blessings of GodThe questions we always struggle with is Hell fair? That’s a harder question. I think one way theologians have dealt with that is, it’s fair in this regard: people get what they deserve. They don’t want to be with God, and so God at some point says, fine, you’ll be without me.

Now, pride keeps you not wanting God around and there’s a sense in which hell, if it’s not just described by the images, but by theological understanding, total conscious, eternal separation from the blessings of God and there’s a sense in which hell is people getting exactly what they want, (they say) “I didn’t want God.”

If God is Love, How Can there be a Hell?

Although God is love, and prefers Mercy, He is is also a God of Justice; He must punish sin. Our God is totally holy, and evil cannot stand in His presence. He loves to do mercy, but His character also demands that He punish sin.  Says Bible Scholar Ben Witherington:

“Hell in the New Testament is a constant reminder that there is a final accountability for our beliefs and behaviors in this life, whatever the particulars and temperature and durability of Hell may be.  It is a reminder that this life is basically the time of decision, and the decisions we make now can indeed have eternal consequences in the afterlife.  And, frankly,  this is not bad news.  It is a part of the Good News that in the end justice as well as mercy, righteousness as well as compassion, and holiness as well as love wins.  Thanks be to God.”       

And God will NOT violate our sacred will, our power to choose. He has provided more than enough “reasons to believe” – in general revelation, and through God’s word – so that every creature can choose. Because without choosing, there can be no love. Robots don’t love – free creatures do.  And He wants your love, but you – and I – must choose. He has done it all by coming in the form of a man, living a sinless life and fulfilling all the requirements of the Law, they giving Himself as a sacrifice – a ransom if you will – so that we would be saved by His atoning work.  He has done it all.  All He wants is for you, and I, to choose Him. As it says in the last book of the Bible:

Rev 3:19-20: Be earnest and repent. Behold, I stand at the door [of your heart] and knock. If anyone hears My voice and opens the door, 
I will come in
 and dine with him, and he with Me.

Will Those Who Have Never Heard of Christ Go to Hell?

Ben Witherington also asks us to “consider for a moment the implication of the parable in Luke 16.   It suggests that Abraham,  and poor Lazarus did not go to Hell,  and yet neither one of them believed in Jesus as Lord and Savior.

Indeed belief in Jesus as the risen Lord doesn’t even arise amongst Jesus’ followers until Easter and thereafter.  Do we really want to say that nobody went to heaven before Jesus died and rose again?  That would be pretty bold theology, and it is a theology contradicted by OT stories (Enoch and Elijah taken up into the presence of God), and Jesus’ afterlife parable in Lk. 16. And then of course there is the issue of whether people are consigned to Hell because they have never heard of the existence of Jesus.  The answer to this latter question is no.

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The basis for judgment on anyone is the sins they actually have committed, not something they never knew. Indeed,  Luke and Acts indicate that God has mercy and forgiveness on even Jesus’ executioners  “because they know not what they do”.  Are we really going to argue that when Jesus asked God to forgive his executioners,  God turned him down?  I don’t think so.  

It would seem then that there is a place for considering the possibility that there is a wideness in God’s mercy, greater than some might think.  Rom 1.18-32, which is not about final judgment but a present temporal judgment suggests that God’s existence and power is evident to all in creation, and so no one is every condemned for not knowing God at all.  They are condemned for rejecting the light they have received refusing to recognize the evidence of God and his power which is everywhere.  So the answer to the ‘what about the lost person in some obscure place where the internet and Gospel has not penetrated’ is that each will be judged on the basis of what they have done with the light/revelation which they have received from God.”

That is why Paul is so emphatic that we preach the good news of Jesus to all that we meet, “for there is no other name under heaven by which we must be saved”.  But for those that have never heard, they will be accountable for the light that they have received from God, and for the choices and actions they have done in the body while on this earth. 

But Why Can’t God Just Welcome All into Heaven?

One must remember that God is absolutely holy. He cannot have sinful creatures in His presence, or in Heaven with Him. The Bible says our God is a “consuming fire”. In Him there is no darkness at all. So sinful creatures cannot abide with Him in Heaven. All who are sinful must be separated from God and cannot be allowed to enter His home, Heaven. The place or abode where souls go, away from the presence of God, we term “hell”.

How then are people to be saved, justified, and enter into His presence? In His mercy, God has made a way. He himself too on human, flesh, became a little baby 2,000 years ago, and became one of us. He fulfilled His Law like none of us could, living a perfect sinless life. The He offered Himself up in our place, as a “living sacrifice”, the “lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world”.

You see, God cannot excuse sin. He must punish it, because He is a God of justice. The so the price for mankind’s sin had to be paid. But God is also rich in mercy, “not willing that any should perish”. SO how was God to be both aa God ofJesus Resurrection justice, and a god of mercy at the same time? By becoming one of us, being tempted in all sorts of ways just like us, but never transgressing the Law He laid down. Then offering up Himself in our place taking our punishments, bearing our sentence. He died in our place so that we could have a way back to Him. 

But could the grave hold Him? NO. Why? Because “the wages of sin is death”, and Jesus the Messiah knew no sin. As the Bible says, it was not possible for the grave to hold Him. So, as the Scriptures foretold, and as He himself predicted, He ROSE on the morning of the third day. He conquered death, and became the first of a new creation.

Rom 6:23 “For the wages of sin is death, but
the GIFT of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord”

God knew you would not be able to keep the Law in its entirety.  And it says that if you fail in only one tiny part of the aw, you are guilty of all.  “All have fallen short of the glory of God” (Roman 3:23)..  But in His love, and mercy, He decided to come down and do what we could never do ourselves: keep the Law in its entirety, then give Himself up in our place to take our punishment. Jesus was the ultimate sacrifice for sin, for all of human kind. But to benefit from the GIFT you have to repent, turn from your sinful ways, believe and trust in Jesus Christ as Lord, and receive Him into your heart. Because of what Jesus has done, God  is both Just and the Justifier of many. As it says in Isaiah:

Isaiah 53: 5 But He was wounded for our transgressions, 
He was bruised for our iniquities;
The chastisement for our peace was upon Him, And by His stripes we are healed.

The Truth is that God’s Will is for ALL to be Saved, But NOT All Will Want This!

Johns 3:16  For God so loved the world
that He gave His only begotten
that whoever
believes in Him
should not perish but have everlasting life.

When He says in His Word “whosoever”, that means whoever chooses to believe in His One and Only Son Jesus. The fact is, He desires that ALL be saved. But alas, all will not WANT be saved. The scholar NT Wright has this to say about Hell:

Hell is what happens when human beings say, the God in whose image they were made,…Mockers in End Times

    • We don’t want to worship you.
    • We don’t want our human life to be shaped by you.
    • We don’t want, who we are as humans to be transformed by the love of Jesus dying and rising for us.
    • We don’t want any of that. We want to stay as we are and do our own thing.

And if you do that, what you’re saying is, you want to stop being image bearing human being within this good world that God has made. And you are colluding with your own progressive dehumanization. And that is such a shocking and horrible thing, that its not surprising that the biblical writers and others have used very vivid and terrifying language about it.”  Watch his video:

As horrible as it seems, many will CHOOSE not to be saved, even though He reaches out to them, even though He knocks on the the door of their heart over and over again. Some will reject Him, as this passage in Romans state. 

Romans 1:18-23 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men,
who [d]suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 
19 because what may be known of God is [e]manifest [f]in them, for God has shown it to them.
20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen,
being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and [g]Godhead,
so that they are without excuse, 
21 because,
although they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful,
but became futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened.
22 Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23 and changed the glory of the incorruptible 
God into an image made like [h]corruptible man—and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.

What About the Case for Purgatory to Pay for Sins?

Catholics believe in purgatory, “a place or condition of temporal punishment for those who, departing this life in God’s grace, are, not entirely free from venial faults, or have not fully paid the satisfaction due to their transgressions.” The notion of purgatory assumes many of us die with unforgiven sins that need to be purged from our account; some of us are not good enough to go to heaven, but not bad enough to go to hell. Purgatory, therefore, is a temporary, intermediate place (or state of being) where good deeds and works can be performed in order to purge our impurity prior to our final destiny with God.

Is their Biblical Support for A Temporal Punishment Purgatory? No. Jesus Paid it All. 

The evidence from the New Testament simply does not support the existence of the Catholic definition of purgatory. In fact, the Biblical doctrine of Salvation eliminates the need for this type of temporal punishment purgatory. Why?  Simply because salvation Isn’t Based On Our Good Works. According to the Biblical doctrine of Salvation, forgiveness is not based on the good works of the believer, but rather faith. For this reason, deeds or works performed for those in purgatory are both unnecessary and ineffectual

Romans 3:21-24, 27-28: But now a righteousness from God, apart from law,
has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.
This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe.

According to the Biblical doctrine of Salvation, Jesus’ work on the cross (His blood) purifies us from all sin. For this reason, there isn’t a lingering sin problem requiring the existence of a place like purgatory.  So we are saved and justified by grace, through faith, and that not of ourselves, it is the gift of God – not of works, lest anyone should boast. (Eph 2:8). 

If There is a Purgatory, it Will Be to Complete Sanctification

Christians of varied stripes agree nothing impure can enter heaven. The question becomes whether the righteousness of Christ is

  • imputed automatically as we pass from this life, or
  • whether a continuing process of sanctification is essential before a human can enter into God’s presence.

Choices made over the course of a lifetime shape character—not simply an initial choice to become a Christian, taken by itself, Lewis argued. Those cumulative choices gradually transform – sanctify – a person’s nature into the image of Christ and create a disposition where a person can delight in God’s presence, he insisted. “Every Christian is to become a little Christ,” Lewis wrote. “The whole purpose of becoming a Christian is simply nothing else.”

Lewis took seriously and literally the idea of God making people perfect, not just treating them as if they were perfect. And the process of transformation—sanctification—is long and painful, he stressed. 

If there is a Purgatory, it will be for the Redeemed to be Purified – Not to Pay for Sin

C.S. Lewis, noted mid-20th century Christian apologist and author, viewed purgatory primarily as a state in which the redeemed are purified of their sins before entering heaven rather than an intermediate place of retributive punishment for people with unconfessed sins, said Jerry L. Walls, scholar in residence and philosophy professor at Houston Baptist University.

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Viewed in that sense, some type of purgatory—a process that allows sanctification to be completed before an individual enters God’s presence—can be embraced ecumenically, said Walls, a Methodist who now attends an Episcopal church. Walls spoke on “C.S. Lewis and the Case for Mere Purgatory” at Baylor University Nov. 30. The Baylor Center for Christian Philosophy and the Baylor Institute for Studies of Religion sponsored the inaugural C.S. Lewis Memorial Lecture.

In several of his books, Lewis expressed his belief in a purgatory, but one that is different from the Catholic definition of Purgatory. Lewis’ view grew out of his understanding of the doctrine of salvation. “Our souls demand purgatory, don’t they?” Lewis asked in Letters to Malcolm: Chiefly on PrayerLewis saw salvation primarily in terms of transformation and sanctification, Walls said. So, in Lewis’ view, purgatory exists not to satisfy God’s sense of justice in punishing the unrepentant, but rather to purify believers in preparation for their everlasting home in God’s presence, he explained. Sin trains fallen humankind a certain way, and sanctification demands dramatic transformation achieved over a lifetime—and beyond, if necessary, he noted.

In sum, there is little or no biblical basis for a Purgatory that torments souls for sins that have not been paid for.  Scripture clear states that Christ paid for all of mankind’s sins, past, present and future, and that salvation is by grace through faith. If there is a Purgatory, it will be for the redeemed, to complete the sanctification process, so that they – holy and pure – may stand in God’s presence with delight. 

Is There Really Eternal Torment,  or is One Just Destroyed?

Is there eternal torment in Hell, or do the wicked eventually cease to exist?

  • Many scriptures point to hell being eternal, just as heaven is eternal
  • And just as those in Heaven have eternal life, so those in Hell have eternal “death”

According to Ben Witherington, “Hell is the place you experience the absence of the presence of God for as long as you continue to exist. Whether there is a time when Hell will cease to exist, like the crystal sea of Revelation, equally orthodox persons can debate. Annihilation or destruction of Satan, Hell and its inhabitants is a possible interpretation of the eschatological endgame, but its also possible Hell will go on ‘olam wu olam wu olam’…” (forever and ever). 

While the Bible speaks about heaven as eternal life, and Hell as eternal punishment or destruction, here is how C.S. Lewis framed the issue: – those that are in Heaven are eternally growing into more and more fully into life, vs. those in hell that are eternally growing to be less and less humanuntil after millions of years, there is almost nothing left.

How Then Can You Be Saved? Believe, and Receive! 

Jesus explained to Nicodemus, and religious leader at the time, that “flesh and blood cannot inherit the Kingdom of God”. What is born of the flesh is flesh, and what is born of the Spirit is spirit. To be eligible for Heaven, Jesus said

Jesus answered him, Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again[b] 
he cannot see the kingdom of God.
Nicodemus said to him, “How can a man be born when he is old?
Can he enter a second time into his mother’s womb and be born?”
Jesus answered, “Truly, truly, I say to you,
unless one is born of water and the Spirit,
he cannot enter the kingdom of God.
That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and
that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.[c]
Do not marvel that I said to you,
You[d] must be born again.’
(John 3:3-7)

The flesh, that is your earthly body, has the stain of sin and death upon it, and eventually you will die, as God told Adam in the Garden. The Spirit gives life, and those that believe in God’s provision of redemption, Jesus, and receive Him as Lord of their life, will be “born again” – their spirit given new life, God’s spiritual life..  All those that trust in Him will live eternally with their Lord, and other believers, in heaven, and in the Kingdom of God. 

Although The Lord desires all to be saved, not all will choose Him. Many will love the life of the flesh, and willfully choose to live a life of lust and pleasure – not realizing that their life is short, and but a vapor compared to eternity. In the flesh there are spiritually dead, and when their body dies, they have no spirit with which to enter into the Kingdom of God.

To be “born again” you must believe that Jesus in the one and only Son of God, that He died and rose again for your redemption, and you must receive Him into your heart. You must be born again spiritually by asking the Lord to come and take up residence in your heart, giving your life top Him:

John 1:12 KJV   But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God,
even to them that believe on his name:

Although He is not willing that any perish, He will not violate our own free will. Because without a free will, there can be no possibility of love. And God is love, and would like us to love Him too.

God Has a Plan for Your Life Here, and Wants You in Heaven with Him and God’s Family!

If you died today, would go to Heaven?  Did you know that you can be sure you can?  Jesus said “If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall my servant be; if any man serve me, him will my father honor.” (John 12:26)

What is Heaven Like?

God has done and will do everything possible to save us and provide eternal life to his creatures.   He is all loving, but also all pure and righteous and holy.  He cannot tolerate evil and wickedness, and thus must punish sin.  Yet He loves His creation and desires to save everyone if possible.  How did He accomplish this?  But being BOTH the Just and the Justifier for all, and taking the penalty for sin in our place. 

Indeed, He loves each of us so much that ‘He gave His one and only Son, that whosoever puts their trust in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.’ (John 3:16 paraphrased).  The ultimate LORD paid the ultimate price for sin, dieing once for all mankind for all time.  He died for us so that we didn’t have to die – so that by trusting in Him, we could inherit eternal life. No, you can’t “work your way to heaven” by good deeds.

The Bible says “All have fallen short of the glory of God.  Putting on good works to try to cover the stain of sin is like trying to enter a magnificent feat with clothes of rags.  You aren’t getting in! You need a shining white robe, and Jesus gives you that when you receive Him into your heart, and are Born Again to new life!

Are you  a follower of Jesus, and do you know Him?  If you do, then you have everything to look forward to – in this life, and in the life to come!  You were made for a purpose, and receiving the Lord into your heart and walking daily with Him will help you come to realize His purpose in your life and fulfill it.  If you don’t have a relationship with your Creator, you can!  Here is a link to Billy Graham’s web site that can show you how you can accept the Lord into your heart, be born again, and begin a right relationship with Him…

Take Me To Steps to Peace with God ==>


Psychology Today – Dec 21, 2011 – “Does the Soul Exist? Evidence Says Yes”, Robert Lanza, M.D. : – Oct 8, 2020 – Steven Hemler – “Near-Death Experiences: Evidence for a Soul?”

The Epoch Times – June 23, 2014 – “How Common are Near Death Experiences? NDEs by the Numbers”

Patheos, Ben Witherington = “Hell??  No?? – :

Ben Witherington: Hell –

NT Wright: “What Is Hell Like? Does It Even Exist? NT Wright on 100 Huntley Street (HD)

Christianity Today: “What is Hell? A Biblical Guide to its Existence” –

Baptist Standard – “CS Lewis Believed in Purgatory, for Heavens Sake” – “Hell? No??